In medieval England, Black Elderberry plant (Sambucus nigra) was planted near a house to deter witches. Traditional use of the berries in Europe in jams, jellies and wines. Flowers and berries used as a tea. Leaves are an insect repellant and used as a spray for aphids and caterpillars. Also added to compost. All parts of this tree have medicinal properties. Yields green, violet and black dyes. Note: Immature uncooked berries are toxic. Black Elderberry plant is native to UK and Europe and is adaptable to any type of moist soil. Prefers shaded, protected position. Frost resistant but drought tender. Perennial, deciduous, spreading tree, growing to 10m x 3.0m.